Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Original Article

Gorlin Syndrome: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Skin Findings


Department of Dermatology and Venereology, İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey

Turk Arch Pediatr 2024; 59: 170-178
DOI: 10.5152/TurkArchPediatr.2024.23231
Read: 305 Downloads: 128 Published: 01 March 2024

Objective: Although Gorlin syndrome has rich skin findings, there is limited information about their subtypes, features specific to this genodermatosis, and relationships with each other.

Materials and Methods: The demographic characteristics as well as cutaneous and extracutaneous findings of consecutive Gorlin syndrome patients diagnosed during 23 years were evaluated retrospectively. The relationship between palmoplantar pitting and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in this localization and the relationship between odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and epidermoid cysts were investigated.

Results: A total of 30 patients were diagnosed with Gorlin syndrome of whom 36.7% were children. BCC was the most common finding (90%) followed by OKCs (83.3%), skeletal system anomalies (76.7%), and palmoplantar pitting (76.7%). While classical BCC (63.3%) lesions were the predominant clinical subtype among all patients, acrochordon-like or small-sized papular BCCs were seen in 45.4% of pediatric patients. Three patients, 2 of whom were children, had BCC lesions in the palmoplantar region in association with palmoplantar pitting. Epidermoid cysts presenting clinically as solitary (n = 12) or a few nodules (n = 4) without punctum, located more commonly in acral areas (n = 10) were seen in 16 (53.3%) patients of whom 7 were children. Epidermoid cysts were seen in 60% of patients with OKCs, and the relationship between epidermoid cysts and OKCs was not statistically significant (P = .15). Extracutaneous tumors such as medulloblastoma (n = 3), cardiac fibroma (n = 1), and ameloblastoma (n = 1) were also recorded.

Conclusion: The awareness of papular or acrochordon-like BCCs, palmoplantar BCCs, and acral epidermoid cysts without punctum may facilitate early diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome in children.

Cite this article as: Atcı T, Melnicova E, Baykal C. Gorlin syndrome: A comprehensive evaluation of skin findings. Turk Arch Pediatr. 2024;59(2):170-178.

EISSN 2757-6256