Turkish Archives of Pediatrics

Turkish Neonatal Society Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Related Complications


Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada


Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey


Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

Turk Arch Pediatr 2021; 56: 499-512
DOI: 10.5152/TurkArchPediatr.2021.21142
Read: 248 Downloads: 100 Published: 01 September 2021

Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) remains an important cause of brain injury in preterm infants, and is associated with high rates of mortality and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, despite the recent advances in perinatal care. Close neuroimaging is recommended for both the detection of GMH-IVH and for the follow-up of serious complications, such as post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD). Although the question when best to treat PHVD remains a matter of debate, recent literature on this topic shows that later timing of interventions predicted higher rates of neurodevelopmental impairment, emphasizing the importance of a well-structured neuroimaging protocol and timely interventions. In this guideline, pathophysiologic mechanisms, preventive measures, and clinical presentations of GMH-IVH and PHVD will be presented, and a neuroimaging protocol as well as an optimal treatment approach will be proposed in light of the recent literature.

Cite this article as: Çizmeci MN, Akın MA, Özek E. Turkish neonatal society guideline on the diagnosis and management of germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage and related complications. Turk Arch Pediatr. 2021; 56(5): 499-512.

EISSN 2757-6256