Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Original Article

Assessment of Prognostic Factors and Validity of Scoring Models in Childhood Autoimmune Encephalitis


Division of Pediatrics, Department of Child Neurology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey

Turk Arch Pediatr 2023; 58: 142-153
DOI: 10.5152/TurkArchPediatr.2023.22198
Read: 1047 Downloads: 356 Published: 01 March 2023

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic factors in a single-center pediatric cohort with autoimmune encephalitis.

Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 23 pediatric autoimmune encephalitis patients (seropositive autoimmune encephalitis: 15, seronegative autoimmune encephalitis: 8). Five group prognostic parameters were evaluated: clinical manifestations, elect roenc ephal ograp hy features, magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, biomarkers, and treatment modalities. Three scoring models were applied: the Antibody Prevalence in Epilepsy and Response to Immunotherapy in Epilepsy for predicting autoimmune-related epilepsy in the whole cohort and the anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor Encephalitis 1-Year Functional Status score for overall outcome in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

Results: The initial clinical spectrum of the disease was similar in the seronegative and seropositive groups. Almost half of the patients (48%) recovered without any complications with first-line immunotherapy. The patients with movement disorders in the acute phase of the disease needed more likely second-line immunotherapy (P = .039). The presence of status epilepticus at admission was significantly associated with adverse outcomes and the development of autoimmune-related epilepsy (P = .019). Autoimmune-related epilepsy was defined in an equal proportion of patients (91.5%) with 2 immune epilepsy scores (Antibody Prevalence in Epilepsy and Response to Immunotherapy in Epilepsy). The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor Encephalitis 1-Year Functional Status score and the modified Rankin score assessed for the first-year prognosis were strongly correlated among the patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (P = .03, Spearmen’s rho = 0.751).

Conclusions: The presence of status epilepticus was the most important prognostic factor in the patients with the adverse outcome. The studied scoring models (Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor Encephalitis 1-Year Functional Status, Antibody Prevalence in Epilepsy, and Response to Immunotherapy in Epilepsy) have also been proven to be applicable to the pediatric age group for predicting overall outcome and autoimmune-related epilepsy.

Cite this article as: Kanmaz S, Yılmaz S, Toprak DE, et al. Assessment of prognostic factors and validity of scoring models in childhood autoimmune encephalitis. Turk Arch Pediatr. 2023;58(2):142-153.

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