Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Review

Acute liver failure in newborns

1.

Department of Neonatal, University of Health Sciences, Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children’s Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey

Turk Arch Pediatr 2021; 56: 108-114
DOI: 10.5152/TurkArchPediatr.2021.190205
Read: 283 Downloads: 194 Published: 03 February 2021

Acute liver failure is a condition that is defined as a sudden, complete, or nearly complete loss of liver functions without any previous liver disease, usually accompanied by encephalopathy, which can be reversible, but with a mortality rate of 55-70%. Acute liver failure newborns is an acute liver failure in the first 28 days of life. The Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Working Group identified the presence of coagulopathy as the main finding for the identification of acute liver failure in childhood following vitamin K administration. Although the incidence of acute liver failure is reported to be 17/100 000 in all ages, its incidence is not known exactly in newborn and childhood. The most common cause of acute liver failure in the newborn period is the gestational alloimmune liver disease that was previously known as neonatal hemochromatosis. This is followed by viral infections, metabolic diseases, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and other rare causes. In the neonatal period, acute liver failure is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. For this reason, the vital signs of the patients should be closely monitored and supportive treatments should be planned according to the follow-up and the etiology of the disease should be clarified urgently. In this process, acyclovir treatment until herpes simplex virus infection is excluded and lactose-free feeding until galactosemia is excluded are recommended as life-saving treatments. In the literature, since there is a limited number of studies related to neonatal acute liver failure, prospective studies investigating the factors affecting treatment and prognosis are needed.

Cite this article as: Karadağ N, Okbay Güneş A, Karatekin G. Acute liver failure in newborns. Turk Arch Pediatr 2021; 56(2): 108-14.

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